Everything about Artificial Intelligence or AI

From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous weapons.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech industry. 
AI programming focuses on three cognitive skills:

Learning process

This aspect of AI programming focuses on acquiring data and creating rules for how to turn the data into actionable information. The rules, which are called algorithms, provide computing devices with step-by-step instructions for how to complete a specific task.

Reasoning process

This aspect of AI programming focuses on choosing the right algorithm to reach a desired outcome.

Self-correction process

This aspect of AI programming is designed to continually fine-tune algorithms and ensure they provide the most accurate results possible.






Artificial intelligence generally falls under two broad categories: 

Narrow AI

 Narrow AI sometimes referred to as "Weak AI," this kind of artificial intelligence operates within a limited context and is a simulation of human intelligence. Narrow AI is often focused on performing a single task extremely well and while these machines may seem intelligent, they are operating under far more constraints and limitations than even the most basic human intelligence. 

What can narrow AI do?

There are a vast number of emerging applications for narrow AI: interpreting video feeds from drones carrying out visual inspections of infrastructure such as oil pipelines, organizing personal and business calendars, responding to simple customer-service queries, co-ordinating with other intelligent systems to carry out tasks like booking a hotel at a suitable time and location, helping radiologists to spot potential tumors in X-rays, flagging inappropriate content online, detecting wear and tear in elevators from data gathered by IoT devices.


General Artificial Intelligence

General Artificial Intelligence sometimes referred to as "Strong AI," is the kind of artificial intelligence we see in the movies, like the robots from Westworld or Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation. AGI is a machine with general intelligence and, much like a human being, it can apply that intelligence to solve any problem. This kind of AI doesn't exist today but soon it will become a reality.

What can general AI do?

Artificial general intelligence is very different and  adaptable intellect found in humans, a flexible form of intelligence capable of learning how to carry out vastly different tasks, anything from haircutting to building spreadsheets, or to reason about a wide variety of topics based on its accumulated experience.


How Artificial Intelligence Works?

AI works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns in the data. AI is a broad field of study that includes many theories, methods and technologies.

• Machine Learning

It uses methods from neural networks, statistics, operations research and physics to find hidden insights in data without explicitly being programmed for where to look or what to conclude.

• Neural Network

It is a type of machine learning that is made up of interconnected units that processes information by responding to external inputs, relaying information between each unit. The process requires multiple passes at the data to find connections and derive meaning from undefined data.

• Deep Learning

It uses huge neural networks with many layers of processing units, taking advantage of advances in computing power and improved training techniques to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data.

• Cognitive Computing 

It is a subfield of AI that strives for a natural, human-like interaction with machines. Using AI and cognitive computing, the ultimate goal is for a machine to simulate human processes through the ability to interpret images and speech – and then speak coherently in response.

• Computer Vision 

It relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real time and interpret their surroundings.

• Natural Language Processing (NLP) 

NLP is  the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage of NLP is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using normal, everyday language to perform tasks.

Application of Artificial Intelligence

The applications for artificial intelligence are endless. The technology can be applied to many different sectors and industries.

Healthcare 

Artificial Intelligence provide medicine and X- readings. Health care assistants reminds you to take your pills, exercise, etc. AI is helping to doctors to find the right treatment for any particular disease.

Finance and Economics

Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. AI has also reduced fraud and financial crimes.

Automotive

AI have contributed to the growth of the automotive industry through the creation and evolution of self-driving vehicles. There are many components contribute to the functioning of self-driving cars. These vehicles incorporate systems such as braking, lane changing, collision prevention, navigation and mapping.

Retail

AI provide virtual shopping capabilities that offer personalized recommendations and discuss purchase options with the consumer. Stock management and site layout technologies will also be improved with AI.

Hospitality

AI are used to reduce staff and increase efficiency in the hospitality industry. Hotel services are backed by AI in the form of chatbot, application, virtual voice assistant and service robots.


How AI can be dangerous?


Most AI experts agree that a super intelligent AI to become intentionally benevolent or malevolent. Instead, when considering how AI might become a risk, experts think two scenarios most likely:

1.The AI is programmed to do something devastating

Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence systems that are programmed to kill. In the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily cause mass casualties. An AI arms race could inadvertently lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties. To avoid being thwarted by the enemy, these weapons would be designed to be extremely difficult to simply “turn off,” so humans could plausibly lose control of such a situation.

2. The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, but it develops a destructive method for achieving its goal

This can happen whenever we fail to fully align the AI’s goals with ours, which is strikingly difficult. If you ask an obedient intelligent car to take you to the airport as fast as possible, it might get you there chased by helicopters and covered in vomit, doing not what you wanted but literally what you asked for.


Examples of Artificial Intelligence

• Smart assistants (like Siri and Alexa)

• Disease mapping and prediction tools

• Manufacturing and drone robots

• Conversational bots for marketing and customer service

• Self -  driving car 

• Spam filters on email

• Social media monitoring tools for dangerous content or false news

• Image recognition software
   
  and many, many more.


The End Notes

Artificial Intelligence provide human - like interactions with software and offer decision support for specific task, but it is not a replacement for human and won't be anytime soon.
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