Use of X-rays in Medical Field

X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves, that can pass through solid objects, including the body. Just like gamma rays, X-rays cannot be seen, felt or heard. They effortlessly pass through skin, bone and metal to produce images that the human eye would never be able to see. X-rays penetrate different objects more or less according to their density.In medical field, X-rays are used to generate images of tissues and structures inside the body. 

X-rays were discovered by the German scientist Wilhelm Roentgen who discovered it on November 8, 1895. For this discovery, Röentgen was awarded the very first Nobel Prize in physics, in 1901.He also studied the ability of X-rays to pass through human tissues to produce images of the bones.

The images show the parts of your body in different shades of black and white. This is because different tissues absorb different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs X-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and other soft tissues absorb less and look gray. Air absorbs the least, so lungs look black.

Types of X-rays

There are many types of medical imaging techniques used to diagnose conditions and diseases. 

1. Radiography 

Radiography is an imaging technique in which single two-dimensional are produced by using X-ray radiation.

2. Mammography

Mammography is a special type of radiography that is used to create images of the internal structures of breast and to detect breast cancer.

3. Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique to obtain real-time images of the structures of  internal organs and tissues by the  procedure or passage of a contrast agent through the body.

4. Computed Tomography 

Computed Tomography (CT scanning) is a technique in which many X-ray images are recorded as the detector moves around the patient's body and obtained all the individual images into cross-sectional images or tomographic images or slices of internal organs and tissues.

Uses of X-rays

• Bone fractures

• Some tumors

• Infections (like pneumonia)

• Calcifications (like kidney stones)

• Dental issues

• Arthritis in joints

• Blood vessel blockages

• Bone loss (like osteoporosis)

• Foreign objects (such as items swallowed by children)

• Heart problems (such as congestive heart failure)

• Digestive problems

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