What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

An estimated 80% of the mass of the whole universe is made up of something that cannot be directly observed by Scientists. This is known as Dark Matter. This bizarre(strange or unusual) matter doesn't emit any light or energy.




Astronomers have hypothesized that the universe contains more matter than seen by the naked eye. Support for dark matter has grown since then, and although no solid direct evidence of dark matter has been detected.


What is Dark Matter made up of?

The familiar material of the universe, known as baryonic matter, is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Dark matter may be made of baryonic or non-baryonic matter. To hold the elements of the universe together, dark matter must make up approximately 80% percent of the universe. The missing matter could simply be more challenging to detect, made up of regular, baryonic matter.

If Scientists cannot see Dark Matter, then how do they know it Exists?


The theory behind the Existence of Dark Matter

Scientists calculate the mass of large objects in space by studying their motion. Astronomers examining spiral galaxies in the 1970s expected to see the material in the center moving faster than on the outer edges. Instead, they found the stars in both locations traveled at the same velocity, indicating the galaxies contained more mass than could be seen. Studies of the gas within elliptical galaxies also indicated a need for more mass than found invisible objects. Clusters of galaxies would fly apart if the only mass they contained were visible to conventional astronomical measurements.


Dark matter versus Dark Energy

Although dark matter makes most of the matter of the universe, it only makes about a quarter(one-fourth) of the universe's total composition. The energy of the universe is dominated by dark energy.

After the Big Bang, the universe began expanding. Scientists thought that it would eventually run out of energy, slowing down as gravity pulled the objects inside it together. But studies of distant supernova revealed that the universe today is expanding faster than it was in the past, not slower, indicating that the expansion is accelerating. This would only be possible if the universe contained enough energy to overcome gravity — dark energy.


The End Notes

Well, that's all in this article. We will talk about Dark Energy in later posts. If you like this, please do share this around your Friend Circle.

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