Introduction to Artificial Intelligence: Characteristics and Applications

You have a machine, it works on your commands. It does everything that you tell it to do. But, somehow if that machine can do a task without your command or controls, then it is called an intelligent machine. And hence, the phenomenon is called Artificial Intelligence.

The race to build a better Artificial Intelligence started in 1950 when Alan Turing proposed something. Oh no no, that was not a theory. That was just a dialogue "Can Machine think?".

More Definitions(Use which is suitable for you)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion.

It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence.

AI often revolves around the use of algorithms. An algorithm is a set of unambiguous instructions that a mechanical computer can execute. A complex algorithm is often built on top of other, simpler, algorithms. A simple example of an algorithm is the following (optimal for the first player) recipe for play at tic-tac-toe:

  • If someone has a "threat" (that is, two in a row), take the remaining square. Otherwise, 
  • if a move "forks" to create two threats at once, play that move. Otherwise, 
  • take the center square if it is free. Otherwise, 
  • if your opponent has played in a corner, take the opposite corner. Otherwise, 
  • take an empty corner if one exists. Otherwise, 
  • take any empty square.

Challenges for Artificial Intelligence

These are capabilities of Human Intelligence (Natural Intelligence) while building an AI these become challenges:

  • Reasoning
  • Problem-solving
  • Knowledge Representation
  • Planning
  • Learning
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Perception
  • Motion and Manipulation
  • Social Intelligence
  • General Intelligence

Applications of AI

AI has been dominant in various fields such as:

Gaming − AI plays a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, PUBG, etc., where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.

Natural Language Processing − It is possible to interact with the computer that understands and interacts in the natural language spoken by humans.

Expert Systems − There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanations and advice to the users.

Vision Systems − These systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,

A spying airplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.

Doctors use a clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.

Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminals with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.

Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human noise due to cold, etc.

Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on-screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert them into editable text.

Intelligent Robots − Robots can perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors, and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Also, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to the new environment.

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